Journal of Academic Research for Humanities (JARH) is a double-blind peer-review, Open Free Access, online Multidisciplinary Research Journal
Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Eco Linguistics-Infused Procedural Text Learning for ESL Students’ Success


This research aimed to investigate ESL students' perceptions of the Eco linguistics-based procedural text teaching model and its impact on their learning experiences, particularly concerning the procedural text. A mixed-method approach was employed, involving a purposive sample of 100 undergraduate English department students from the 3rd and 4th semesters at the University of Central Punjab (UCP), Bahawalpur. Data collection utilized 23-item questionnaires, pretests, and posttests. SPSS version 26 analyzed questionnaire and test data, while thematic analysis was applied to open-ended questions. The findings indicated that learners had a positive attitude toward learning English through an eco-linguistics-based procedural teaching approach. Notably, 73% of students expressed satisfaction with the procedural text activities, acknowledging their role in enhancing language skills, particularly in writing. Furthermore, 60% of the participants favoured the procedural text teaching model. Crucially, the study revealed significant improvements in writing skills when comparing pretest and posttest results. Learners in the experimental group exhibited higher scores in the post-test, indicating the efficacy of the Eco linguistics-based procedural text model in enhancing procedural text writing skills. In conclusion, this model represents a novel approach to teaching English, emphasizing the importance of environmental values and love. The study suggests that integrating environmental themes into procedural text activities can not only enhance language learning but also promote environmental consciousness among learners. Therefore, it is recommended to encourage adoption of procedural text writing methods in English language classrooms, with a focus on instilling environmental care and love within the learners, fostering both linguistic and environmental awareness.


ESL, Activities, Efficacy, Instilling, Fostering



  1. Anderson, L. W. and D. R. Krathwohl (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, Longman.
  2. Anderson, M. and K. Anderson (1997). Text types in English, Macmillan Education AU.
  3. Best, J. W. and J. Kahn (2009). Research in Education New Delhi, Printice Hall of India Pvt, Ltd.
  4. Delpech, E. and P. Saint Dizier (2008). Investigating the structure of procedural texts for answering how-to questions. Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2008).
  5. Derewianka, B. (1990). Exploring how texts work, Heinemann.
  6. Fariha, M. R. and P. Setiawati (2021). "STUDENTS’PERCEPTION TOWARD THE USE OF EDMODO
  7. Gerot, L. and P. Wignell (1994). Making sense of functional grammar: An introductory workbook, Antipodean Educational Enterprises Queensland.
  8. Howatt, A. P. R. and H. G. Widdowson (2004). A history of ELT, Oxford university press.
  9. Kentjono, D. (1990). Dasar-dasar linguistik umum, Fakultas Sastra Universitas Indonesia. Khatulistiwa 3(1).
  10. Kridalaksana, H. (1986). Kelas kata dalam bahasa Indonesia, Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  11. Maharani, M. M. (2017). IMPROVING STUDENTS’WRITING THROUGH DIARY WRITING. Proceedings Education and Language International Conference.
  12. McCutchen, D. (2011). "From novice to expert: Implications of language skills and writing-relevant knowledge for memory during the development of writing skill." Journal of writing research 3(1): 51-68
  13. Parpala, A. and S. Lindblom-Ylänne (2012). "Using a research instrument for developing quality at the university." Quality in Higher Education 18(3): 313-328
  14. Rani, R. (2020). "An Ecological Study of English Language Learning Anxiety: A Case Study of National Textile University." NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry 18(1): 64-VIII.
  15. Rizqi, M. (2016). ACTIVE VOICE CHANGES IN TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH TO INDONESIAN AND VICE VERSA. Metalingua: Jurnal Penelitian Bahasa, 14(2), 197-208.
  16. Shirvan, M. E. (2017). Iranian English language learners’ attitude towards their accent in English language: An ecological approach. Englishes in Practice, 4(1), 1-30.
  17. Steffensen, S. V. and A. Fill (2014). "Eco linguistics: the state of the art and future horizons." Language sciences 41: 6-25.
  18. Steffensen, S. V. and C. Kramsch (2017). "The ecology of second language acquisition and socialization." Springer International Publishing. doi 10: 978-973.
  19. Svensson, L. (1984). Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.
  20. Syahrotun, S. (2016). Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematis Siswa Sekolah Menengah Pertama di Kota Bandung (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia).
  21. Widayanti, T., et al. (2019). "Students’ Perception in Writing Procedure Text." Professional Journal of English Education 2(5): 687-691. writing." Psychological reports 99(1): 51-73.
  22. Widayanti, T., Rustyana, N., & Haryudin, A. (2019). Students’ Perception in Writing Procedure Text. Professional Journal of English Education, 2(5), 687-691.