Journal of Academic Research for Humanities (JARH) is a double-blind peer-review, Open Free Access, online Multidisciplinary Research Journal
Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Challenging factors towards the effective use of ChatGPT in Education in Province Sindh, Pakistan: Application of TAM Model


The study aims to identify the significant challenging factors of using ChatGPT in the educational context.  several researchers contributed theories and models for investigating the factors that lack the integrity of teachers and students in routine academic activities, On the other hand, ChatGPT-generated text responses might not hold always true explanations for a particular course content which can lead the learners to misconceptions about information understanding. The UTAUT model was applied to determine the influential challenging factors. For the quantitative approach, a survey questionnaire was devised to validate the research model and achieve research objectives. Fifty-one participants recorded initial responses for reliability analysis. All constructs had Cronbach's alpha significance coefficient greater than 0.7, ranging from 0.866 to 0.928. This study will contribute to teachers' perceptions towards ChatGPT as learners may become overly dependent on ChatGPT for academic tasks, leading to a decrease in critical thinking skills, creativity, and independent problem-solving abilities.


Challenging, , ChatGPT, , Education, , TAM, , Sindh.



  1. Alam, N., Khalid, M., & Dawood, S. (2023). Comparative Analysis of Likert and Visual Analogue Scale in Identifying Factors Contributing to Academic Stress of Students. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(4), 153–168. Retrieved from
  2. Deng, J., & Lin, Y. (2022). The benefits and challenges of ChatGPT: An overview. Frontiers in Computing and Intelligent Systems, 2(2), 81-83.
  3. Dirsa, A., BP, S. A., Diananseri, C., & Setiawan, I. (2022). Teacher's role as a professional educator in the school environment. International Journal of Science Education and Cultural Studies, 1(1), 32-41.
  4. Castillo, A. G. R., Paricahua, E. W. P., Paricahua, A. K. P., Lopez, H. R. P., Huayta-Meza, F. T., León, C. R. R., ... & Arias-Gonzáles, J. L. (2022). Bibliographic Reference Management: The Role of Technological Appropriation in Students. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 100(100), 133-157.
  5. Abdaljaleel, M., Barakat, M., Alsanafi, M., Salim, N. A., Abazid, H., Malaeb, D., ... & Sallam, M. (2023). Factors Influencing Attitudes of University Students towards ChatGPT and its Usage: A Multi-National Study Validating the TAME-ChatGPT Survey Instrument. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1096709.
  6. Alassafi, M. O. (2022). E-learning intention material using TAM: A case study. Materials Today: Proceedings, 61, 873-877.
  7. Andersson, M., & Marshall Olsson, T. (2023). ChatGPT as a Supporting Tool for System Developers: Understanding User Adoption 10(10), 756-774.
  8. Baidoo-Anu, D., & Owusu Ansah, L. (2023). Education in the era of generative artificial intelligence (AI): Understanding the potential benefits of ChatGPT in promoting teaching and learning. SSRN.
  9. Bianchini, S., Müller, M., & Pelletier, P. (2022). Artificial intelligence in science: An emerging general method of invention. Research Policy, 51(10), 104604.
  10. Bin-Nashwan, S. A., Sadallah, M., & Bouteraa, M. (2023). Use of ChatGPT in academia: Academic integrity hangs in the balance. Technology in Society, 75, 102370.
  11. Biswas, S. (2023). Role of Chat GPT in Education. Available at SSRN 4369981.
  12. Bozkurt, A., Xiao, J., Lambert, S., Pazurek, A., Crompton, H., Koseoglu, S., ... & Jandrić, P. (2023). Speculative futures on ChatGPT and generative artificial intelligence (AI): A collective reflection from the educational landscape. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 18(1). 1756-1774.
  13. Choudhury, A., & Shamszare, H. (2023). Investigating the Impact of User Trust on the Adoption and Use of ChatGPT: Survey Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 25, e47184.
  14. Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003.‏
  15. Delcker, J., Heil, J., Ifenthaler, D. et al. First-year students AI-competence as a predictor for intended and de facto use of AI-tools for supporting learning processes in higher education. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 21, 18 (2024).
  16. Fauzi, F., Tuhuteru, L., Sampe, F., Ausat, A. M. A., & Hatta, H. R. (2023). Analysing the role of ChatGPT in improving student productivity in higher education. Journal on Education, 5(4), 14886-14891.
  17. Grassini, S. (2023). Shaping the future of education: exploring the potential and consequences of AI and ChatGPT in educational settings. Education Sciences, 13(7), 692.
  18. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long range planning, 46(1-2), 1-12.
  19. Hajjar, S. T. (2018). Statistical analysis: Internal-consistency reliability and construct validity. International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods, 6(1), 27-38.
  20. Hepp, A., Loosen, W., Dreyer, S., Jarke, J., Kannengießer, S., Katzenbach, C., Malaka, R., Pfadenhauer, M., Puschmann, C., & Schulz, W. (2023). ChatGPT, LaMDA, and the hype around communicative AI: The automation of communication as a field of research in media and communication studies. Human-Machine Communication, 6, 41-63.
  21. Kayalı, B., Yavuz, M., Balat, Şener, & Çalışan, M. (2023). Investigation of student experiences with ChatGPT-supported online learning applications in higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 20–39.
  22. Kleebayoon, A., & Wiwanitkit, V. (2023). Artificial intelligence, chatbots, plagiarism and basic honesty: Comment. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 1(9), 82-86.
  23. Liu, G., & Ma, C. (2023). Measuring EFL learners’ use of ChatGPT in informal digital learning of English based on the technology acceptance model. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1-14.
  24. Lo, C. K. (2023). What is the impact of ChatGPT on education? A rapid review of the literature. Education Sciences, 13(4), 410.
  25. Morgan, G. A., Barrett, K. C., Leech, N. L., & Gloeckner, G. W. (2019). IBM SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. Routledge.
  26. Nalbant, K. G. (2021). The importance of artificial intelligence in education: a short review. Journal of Review in science and engineering, 2021, 1-15.
  27. Neumann, M., Rauschenberger, M., & Schön, E. M. (2023). “We Need To Talk About ChatGPT”: The Future of AI and Higher Education. 14, 1096709.
  28. Opara, E., Mfon-Ette Theresa, A., & Aduke, T. C. (2023). ChatGPT for teaching, learning and research: Prospects and challenges. Opara Emmanuel Chinonso, Adalikwu Mfon-Ette Theresa, Tolorunleke Caroline Aduke (2023). ChatGPT for Teaching, Learning and Research: Prospects and Challenges. Glob Acad J Humanit Soc Sci, 5. 15(1), 132-141.
  29. Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Routledge.
  30. Qadir, J. (2022). Engineering education in the era of ChatGPT: Promise and pitfalls of Generative AI for education. TechRxiv.
  31. Ramati, I. (2024). Algorithmic Ventriloquism: The Contested State of Voice in AI Speech Generators. Social Media + Society, 10(1).
  32. Saif, N., Khan, S. U., Shaheen, I., ALotaibi, F. A., Alnfiai, M. M., & Arif, M. (2024). Chat-GPT; validating Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in education sector via ubiquitous learning mechanism. Computers in Human Behavior, 154, 108097.
  33. Sallam, M., Salim, N. A., Barakat, M., Al-Mahzoum, K., Ala'a, B., Malaeb, D., ... & Hallit, S. (2023). Assessing Health Students' Attitudes and Usage of ChatGPT in Jordan: Validation Study. JMIR Medical Education, 9(1), e48254.
  34. Shaengchart, Y. (2023). A conceptual review of TAM and ChatGPT usage intentions among higher education students. Advance Knowledge for Executives, 2(3), 1-7.
  35. Shahsavar, Y., & Choudhury, A. (2023). UserIntentions to Use ChatGPT for Self-Diagnosis and Health-Related Purposes: Cross-sectional Survey Study. JMIR Human Factors, 10(1), e47564.
  36. Stephens, K. K., Harris, A. G., Hughes, A., Montagnolo, C. E., Nader, K., Stevens. S. A., Tasuji, T., Xu, Y., Purohit, H., & Zobel, C. W. (2023). Human-AI teaming during an ongoing disaster: How scripts around training and feedback reveal this is a form of human-machine communication. Human-Machine Communication, 6, 65-85.
  37. Stein, J., & Banks, J. (2023). Valenced media effects on robot-related attitudes and mental models: A parasocial contact approach. Human-Machine Communication, 6, 155-182.
  38. Thanomsing, C. and Sharma, P. (2024), "Understanding instructor adoption of social media using the technology acceptance model", Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 47-65.
  39. Tiwari, C. K., Bhat, M. A., Khan, S. T., Subramaniam, R., & Khan, M. A. I. (2023). What drives students toward ChatGPT? An investigation of the factors influencing adoption and usage of ChatGPT. Interactive Technology and Smart Education. 77(4), 414-428.
  40. Trương, H. (2023). ChatGPT in Education-A Global and Vietnamese Research Overview.
  41. Ursachi, G., Horodnic, I. A., & Zait, A. (2015). How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators. Procedia Economics and Finance, 20, 679-686.
  42. van Dis, Eva A. M., Bollen, J., Zuidema, W., van Rooij, R., & Bockting, C. L. (2023). ChatGPT: Five priorities for research. Nature, 614(7947), 224-226.
  43. Walter, Y. Embracing the future of Artificial Intelligence in the classroom: the relevance of AI literacy, prompt engineering, and critical thinking in modern education. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 21, 15 (2024).
  44. Zhai, X. (2022). ChatGPT user experience: Implications for education. SSRN.