Journal of Academic Research for Humanities (JARH) is a double-blind peer-review, Open Free Access, online Multidisciplinary Research Journal
Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Challenging Gender Roles: A Feminist Analysis of Ghani Khan’s The Pathans


This paper aims to analyse Ghani Khan’s The Pathans using the feminist lens of literary criticism. Ghani Khan, also known as Lewanai Phalsafi (The Lunatic Philosopher), is a towering literary figure in Pashto literature. Ghani Khan has extensively written in the Pashto language. He is commonly known for his poetry and art. The author amalgamated the concept of Feminism given by the French writer and philosopher, Simone de Beauvoir, and that of Ghani Khan’s view about the attitudes of the male-dominated society towards the women. Ghani Khan strived to unveil the atrocities of the tribal system and the usurpation of women's rights at the hands of the Pashtoon male-dominant society. In his short story, which has been taken for analysis, PRIEST MAGIC AND CHARMS LTD., he manifests the horrible subjugation of the women of the typical Pashtoon society. Ghani Khan remained a staunch proponent of women’s rights up until his death in 1996. He criticized the stereotypical theological exploitation of illiterate people as well. The researchers used qualitative method to conduct this research and employed an archival data collection approach to contribute in the body of knowledge.


Gender, , Patriarchy, , Pashtun, , Pashto, , Rights


Author Biography

Amir Hamza

BS English Literature and Linguistics, NUML, Islamabad

Sidra Nawaz

BS English Literature and Linguistics, NUML, Islamabad

Kashif Ali

Phil English Scholar at Department of English, NUML, Islamabad


  1. Ahmed, S. (2015). Gender Stereotyping in Pashto Folklore: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Pashto Language and Literature, 1(2), 45-56.
  2. Ali, S., Shah, S. H., Umar, S., Ahmad, Z., & Ali, K. (2022). A Stylistic Analysis of Ghani Khan’s The Pathan. PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 19(4), 1098-1107.
  3. Baca, L. M. (2006). Anthropological Perspectives on Gender, Kinship, and Identity: Pashtun Women in Afghanistan. Anthropology of the Middle East, 1(1), 1-20.
  4. Bacha, M. S. (2010). A Study of the Comparative Elements in the Poetry of Keats and Ghani Khan. Language in India, 10(11).
  5. Batool, R., Dr. Faqir M. Aslam Rana, & Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Qasim. (2024). Investigating Gender Perceptions on Technology Use in Pakistan ELT Classrooms: A Survey-Based Study. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 4(1), 58–63. Retrieved from
  6. Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge.
  7. De Beauvoir, S. (1949). The Second Sex. Vintage.
  8. Dad, K., Shabbir, I., & Sultan, D. F. (2023). Reasons for Code-Switching and Mixing: A Gender-Based Comparative Study of Social Interactions on Twitter. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(3), 207–217A. Retrieved from
  9. García-Delgado, M. Ángel, Rodríguez-Cano, S., Delgado-Benito, V., & de la Torre-Cruz, T. (2024). Digital Teaching Competence among Future Teachers of the University of Burgos. International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences, 13(1), 75–93.
  10. Gilbert, S. M., & Gubar, S. (1979). The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. Yale University Press.
  11. Hekman, S. (2015). Simone de Beauvoir and the beginnings of the feminine subject. Feminist Theory, 16(2), 137-151
  12. Hussain, D. M. S., Rubab, D. I., & Ms Sheeza Tufail. (2023). Use of Social Networking Applications in English Language Teaching (ELT): Adult Learners’ Perceptions In Pakistani ESL Context. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(4), 13–24. Retrieved from
  13. Khan, N. 2022. Ghani's Concept of God. Peshawar: Dust on Books
  14. Khan, G. 1947. The Pathans. Peshawar: University Book Agency.
  15. Khan, Q. (2017). Understanding Gender in Pak-Afghan Pashtun Society: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Folk Stories (Published). National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  16. Khan, G. (2010). The Pathans. Peshawar: Gandhara Hindko Academy.
  17. Momand, A. G., & Firky, Z. (2022). The Unheard Voices in Pashto Women Poetry. JETLEE: Journal of English Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature, 2(2), 62-69.
  18. Rahman, T. (2018). Challenging Masculinity: A Feminist Reading of Ghani Khan’s The Pathans. Journal of Gender Studies, 5(1), 78-91.
  19. Ringel, S., & Ribak, R. (2024). Platforming the Past: The Social Media Logic of Archival Digitization. Social Media + Society, 10(1).
  20. Safa, M. M., & Sahand, E. (2022). An Investigation of Philosophical Thoughts in Ghani Khan Poems. Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal, 3(1), 128- 135.
  21. Shinwari, S. A. (2014, March 8). Ghani Khan was praised as a staunch protector of women's rights. DAWN.COM.
  22. Showalter, E. (1979). Towards a Feminist Poetics. Women’s Review, 4(1), 3-15.
  23. Thurman, J (2010) ‘Introduction’. In: Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex. Trans. Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier. New York: Knopf, pp. ix–xvi.
  24. Wu, C.-H., Robles-Puente, S., & Thompson, A. S. (2024). “Profesora is doing a great job!” or “Online learning sucks”: The relationship between students’ profiles and online language learning. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 14(1), 149–170.
  25. Yousafzai, J, G. (2017). Anticolonial Discourse in the Works of Ghani Khan." Pukhto Adabi Tolana. Pashto, 47(655s). Retrieved from
  26. Zhang, Y., & Schroeder, R. (2024). “It’s All About US vs THEM!”: Comparing Chinese Populist Discourses on Weibo and Twitter. Social Media + Society, 10(1).