Journal of Academic Research for Humanities (JARH) is a double-blind peer-review, Open Free Access, online Multidisciplinary Research Journal
Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Pedagogy at Flux: Challenges for Language Teachers in a Mixed-Ability Class


This research aims to investigate teachers’ perceptions regarding how they meet students’ needs in a mixed-ability context as it involves various pedagogical challenges for language teachers while teaching students of various proficiency levels in heterogeneous groups. Tomlinson's (2001) framework is utilized for this research. Teachers aim to reach all the students by monitoring them in a variety of ways to achieve effective teaching. This study adopts a qualitative and quantitative research design to investigate the challenges faced by language teachers in mixed-ability classes. The participants of this study are language teachers and learners at three language institutes in Sukkur, Pakistan. Purposeful sampling was used to achieve participants’ diversity in terms of gender, years of teaching experience, and educational qualification. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with language teachers to explore their perceptions regarding the challenges faced in mixed-ability classes. The interviews were audio-recorded with permission from the participants and then transcribed verbatim for analysis. Classroom observation was conducted to witness the teaching practices, teachers’ class management, and teacher-student interactions. This research sheds light on the variety of challenges that language teachers face while teaching mixed-ability classes; these challenges encompass students’ individual needs and requirements as well as the necessity to create a supportive and inclusive environment. Our findings reveal that varied instruction is the best way to meet all pupils’ needs and use additional material for both advanced and average learners.


Perceptions, , Transcribed, , Diversity, , Experience, , Gender


Author Biography

Dr. Muhammad Ajmal

Associate Professor, Department of English Language and Literature, The Shaikh Ayaz University, Shikarpur, Pakistan

Dr Zahida Hussain

Assistant Professor, Department of English, Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

Dr. Samina Rana

Associate Professor of English, Higher Education Department, Punjab, Pakistan


  1. Ali, S. (2019). Challenges faced by teachers in teaching English at the secondary level in Pakistan. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 6(1), 65-79.
  2. Aman, S., Dr Muhammad Asif, & Mehvish Muzaffar. (2023). Investigation of the Relationship of Vocabulary Size and Vocabulary Depth: A Study of IELTS Test Takers of Major and Minor Cities in Punjab Pakistan. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(3), 95–104. Retrieved from
  3. Asal, I., Yousuf, D. M. I., & DR Muhammad Imran. (2024). Parents and Teachers Attitudes toward Life Skills-based Education at Elementary Level. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 4(1), 64–76. Retrieved from
  4. Aslam, F., Khan, A., & Shafique, N. (2023). A Study to Investigate the Productiveness of the Compulsory English Course in Enhancing English Language Skills. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(3), 283–293A. Retrieved from
  5. Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Multilingual Matters.
  6. Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
  7. Hall, G., & Harding, L. (2003). Theorizing mixed-ability teaching. In G. Hall & L. Harding (Eds.), Mixed-ability teaching (pp. 1-20). Oxford University Press.
  8. Hall, G. (2016). The challenges of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Algeria: Teachers’ insights. International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(4), 1-12.
  9. Heinzmann, S., Köylü, Z., & Ehrsam, K. (2024). The learning potential of English as a lingua franca contexts in the eyes of study abroad students. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching.
  10. Khan, M. A. (2018). Challenges in teaching English as a foreign language in multilingual contexts: The case of Pakistan. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1), 143-158.
  11. Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589-613.
  12. Ortiz Beltrán, A., Hernandez-Leo, D., & Amarasinghe, I. (2023). Surviving and thriving: How changes in teaching modalities influenced student satisfaction before, during and after COVID-19. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 39(6), 72–88.
  13. Rahim, S. (2021). Professional development needs of English language teachers in Pakistan. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 8(1), 47-59.
  14. Richardson, L., & Lacroix, G. (2023). Which modality results in superior recall for students: Handwriting, typing, or drawing?. Journal of Writing Research, 15(3), 519–540.
  15. Sarwar, N., Khurram, F., & Fayyaz, sana. (2023). Impact of Practicing Gratitude on Focus and Resilience in Classroom Learning among University Students: A Qualitative Analysis. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(3), 65–73. Retrieved from
  16. Serafini, E. J., & Roca-Ramirez, S. I. (2024). The role of critical experiences, positioning, and agency in the dynamic, emergent construction of heritage speaker selves. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 14(1), 97–120.
  17. Tahira Asgher, Muhammad Saleem, & Dr. Asma Kashif Shahzad. (2023). Eco Linguistics-Infused Procedural Text Learning for ESL Students’ Success. International "Journal of Academic Research for Humanities", 3(4), 01–12. Retrieved from
  18. Thompson, A. S. (2024). Introduction to the special issue on languages other than English: A reality check and a glimmer of hope. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 14(1), 17–22.
  19. Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners (2nd ed.). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  20. Tong, X., Yu, L., & Deacon, S. H. (2024). A Meta-Analysis of the Relation Between Syntactic Skills and Reading Comprehension: A Cross-Linguistic and Developmental Investigation. Review of Educational Research, 0(0).
  21. Van Orman, D. S. J., Gotch, C. M., & Carbonneau, K. J. (2024). Preparing Teacher Candidates to Assess for Learning: A Systematic Review. Review of Educational Research, 0(0).
  22. Wang , Y., & Kruk, M. (2024). Modeling the interaction between teacher credibility, teacher confirmation, and English major students’ academic engagement: A sequential mixed-methods approach. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching.
  23. Wesche, M., & Skehan, P. (2002). Communicative, task-based, and content-based language instruction. In R. B. Kaplan (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 413-422). Oxford University Press.
  24. Yousaf, R., & Khoja, A. A. (2020). A study on classroom management techniques practised by secondary school teachers of Pakistan. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 7(1), 89-102.
  25. Zubair, M., & Bilal, M. (2017). Formative assessment: An effective way to improve students’ achievements in English language teaching. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 4(1), 134-148.